Canada - ENG


area: 9,976,139
population: 27,297,000
capital city: Ottawa
other cities: Montreal, Quebec, Calgary, Toronto, Edmonton, Vancouver, Halifax
Canada is the 2nd largest country in the world after Russia and occupies the northern part of North America, borders with the USA, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean and Arctic Ocean
lakes: Lake Superior, Lake Huron, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, Great Bear Lake, Great Slave Lake, Lake Winnipeg
rivers: the St. Lawrence River, the Winnipeg, the Saskatchewan, the Columbia, the Frazer, the Yukon, the Mackenzie

Canada is divided into 7 regions:
The Pacific Coast - British Columbia, Vancouver Island)
The Cordillera - the Rocky Mountains, the Coast Mountains, St. Elias Mountains (Mount Logan - 6,050) The Prairies - grain-producing region
The Canadian Shield - Hudson Bay, region of minerals
The Great Lakes - St. Lawrence lowlands
The Atlantic Provinces - Appalachian Region
The Arctic

the first people are though to have arrived to America from Siberia about 30,000 years ago
the Vikings (Icelandic Norsemen) settled about 985 on the island of Newfoundland
1497 - John Cabot claimed the land for the English Crown; in 1534 James Cartier planted the flag of France on a Gaspe promontory
1763 - the Treaty of Paris - an agreement between England and France - dividing the territories; 1774 - Quebec Act -British granted French civil laws in Canada
1791 - dividing: Upper Canada and Lower Canada, but they were united again until British rule in 1830's because of rebellions
1st July, 1867 - Dominion of Canada ' 1st July is celebrated as "Canada Day"
1931 - the Statue of Westminster - confirmation of autonomy

Political system
constitutional monarchy, a federal state and parliamentary democracy with two official languages and two systems of law: civil law and common law
Canada has 10 provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan) and 3 territories (Northwest Territory, Yukon Territory and Nunavut)
in 1982 the Charter if Rights and Freedoms was entrenched in the Canadian Constitution
the Canadian Parliament is composed of the Queen (who is represented by the Governor General), the Senate and the House of Commons
the Senate (Upper House) has 104 members who are appointed and are divided essentially among Canada's 4 main regions of Ontario, Quebec, the West and the Atlantic Provinces the House of Commons is with its 295 members (five-year terms) the major lawmaking body
the real executive authority is the Cabinet with Prime Minister - they are advisers of the monarch the party with the 2nd largest number of seats is called Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition

Canada belongs to G-7 countries (Canada, France, Italy, Germany, Japan, the UK, the USA), sometimes it's extended to G-8 (plus Russia)
rich sources of raw materials: uranium, zinc, sulphur, nickel, aluminium, gas
agriculture: wheat
highly developed trading country